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Causation in History

The Stoics were the first philosophers to systematically maintain the idea that every event is necessitated by certain causal conditions. Drawing on the work of historians such as Evans and Carr, he develops a sophisticated - but accessible


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Ernest Hemmingway

59 60 On their return to Paris, Hadley asked for a separation; in November she formally requested a divorce. He left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, and on his return


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Early Colonization

Source: Miller and Smith, eds. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 made the Spanish focus all their attention to the Americas, while the Portuguese spread their colonies throughout Africa, Asia, and modern day Brazil. Doi :.1093/oxfordhb/.013.141 Starkey, Armstrong (1998).


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The Endangered Species of the California Sea Otter


the Endangered Species of the California Sea Otter

of the species in June 2010 and shortly received two petitions, one from the states of Washington and Oregon, and the other from the state of Alaska, asking that the eastern Steller sea lion be removed from threatened status under. Females move freely between and among male territories. Sea otters finally gained protections with the signing of the International Fur Seal Treaty of 1911, and became listed under the Marine Mammal Protection and Endangered Species Acts in the 1970s. Since they do very well in captivity some of the efforts involve taking them to locations where they can be cared for. The maximum confirmed depth of dive was 97 m (Newby 1975 however, recent studies using time-depth recorders implanted in Sea Otters indicate average maximum forage depths of 54 m for female and 82 m for male sea otters (Bodkin. In California, it has been noted that Sea Otters ignore Pismo Clams smaller than three inches (7 sieze and the third estate cm) across.

Southern Sea Otter -.S
Fish and Wildlife Service
California Sea Lion Fact Sheet Washington Department of Fish
Zalophus californianus (Californian Sea Lion) - iucn Red List

If the species is delisted, a monitoring plan will still be in place for the next 10 years. If they arent getting enough food they will stop producing milk for the young a Twisted Rite of Passage to live. Pollution on land runs off into the ocean, contaminating the sea otters habitat. However, it is very expensive to keep Sea Lions in captivity. They occur both in captivity and in the wild. Shark Attacks, the sea otter habitat range is expanding because of the lack of food in their current range. Sea Otters forage in rocky and soft-sediment communities on or near the ocean floor. They can also give birth in captivity and the offspring will have a very high chance of survival. The toxicity of oil can also be harmful to sea otters, causing liver and kidney failure as well as severe damage to their lungs and eyes.

These are problems that tend to mainly affect adults. In California, parasites and infectious disease cause more than 40 of sea otter deaths. Sea Otter annual home ranges can occupy up.8 km (80 ha) and extend along 16 km of coastline (Kenyon 1969, Loughlin 1980). Although marine species only make up around four percent of the the total species on the endangered species list, that doesn't mean that most are doing fine. The, endangered Species Act (ESA) was signed into law on December 28, 1973 by President Nixon. Jameson (1989) found that territorial adult males occupied a mean home range.3 ha during the summer-fall period (when home range size was considered equal to territory size and mean coastline length was.1.


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