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Utilitarianism - Mill
the way earlier utilitarians characterized the principle of utility left open serious indeterminacies. So, for example, one cannot determine the value of a body by adding up the value of its parts. Sidgwick seems to recommending that we follow the course that we predict will have the best outcome, given as part of our calculations the data that others may fail in some way either due to having bad desires, or simply not being able to reason. Surely doesn't rate as highly as the pleasure one gets solving a complicated math problem, or reading a poem, or listening to Mozart. Some may be wrong because they violate liberty, or autonomy.
After enumerating the ways in which humans come under obligations (by perceiving the natural consequences of things, the obligation to be virtuous, our civil obligations that arise from laws, and obligations arising from the authority of God) John Gay writes: from the consideration of these. He was a pluralist, rather than a monist, regarding intrinsic value. Instead, he argues that those persons who have experienced both view the higher as better than the lower. That insight is that morally appropriate behavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or utility. However, Socrates does indulge in some intellectual, emotional and such pleasures, which as we have seen are insurmountably greater than those of a fool. If a law or an action doesn't do any good, then it isn't any good. And, for Jeremy Bentham, what made them bad was their lack of utility, their tendency to lead to unhappiness and misery without any compensating happiness.